Saturday, December 7, 2019

Constructionism and Culture in Research †

Question: Discuss about the Constructionism and Culture in Research. Answer: Introduction: China is the country that is located in east of Asia. It is one of the largest Asian countries and has largest population in the world. It is the country that is associated the great history and gradual development of the country and the people over there provides the information about the cultural and technological aspects of the country. China is the country with very impressive and interesting history behind its development. It is the country that was one of the ancient civilizations and was rules by Shang dynasty at first in 1600 to 1046 BC (Law, 2012). The society of China has progressed from five different phases or stages. The first stage was the primitive stage that which follows with slave, feudal, semi-feudal and semi colonial stage. The peoples republic of china was founded in the year of 1949 and after that the county has become socialist society. Cultural Revolution was also conducted in china in order to make the country democratic. From the late 20th century, the country has experienced growth in different sectors and become the part of a successfully county list. As far as the geography of China is considered, it has been analysed that the company is situated at the southeast of Asia at the coastline of Pacific Ocean. The country has the area of around 9.6 million square kilometres along with the coastline of 18000 kilometres (Liu, Liu, Wang Zhang Wang, 2013). The country is surrounded by 14 other countries. In terms of physical features, the country includes plateaus, basins, foothills, and plains, mountains etc. the China is basically divided into four parts that are north, south, north-west and Qinghai-Tibetan areas. Because of differences in the region, the people at different paces have different lifestyle and culture. In terms of river and mountains, China is very rich as it has many rivers and around 50,000 rivers have their drainage areas in China (Ryan Gu, 2010). As China is the very large country and has different cultures thus the specialities of the country also has wide range. It has been analysed that the Chinese food is very famous in all over the world. Chinese food is the major speciality of the country other than its technological equipments. Chinese Dim sum, dumplings, Hakka noodles are some of the dishes that are very famous in all over the world. Chinese cuisine is not only loved by the people in china but the people in other countries also have Chinese cuisine restaurants (Cai, Jun Yang, 2010). Other than noodle and dim sum, fried rice and roast duck of Beijing is also very famous. China is also famous for its antiques and silk. It is a shopping hub for the people who know how to shop. China is considered as the worlds second largest economy in terms of GDP. The economy of the country has experienced great growth in last decade. When the economic reform in China was started, the country was at ninth position in the world in terms of GDP but today it is at 2nd place. After economic reform, the country has become the hub for manufacturer in which the secondary sector has largest share (Archer, Francis Mau, 2010). In recent years, it has been observed that the country is also experiencing growth in the tertiary sector. As far as the economic crisis are concerned, the country has gracefully handle it and shapes the good economy by 9% growth in GDP along with low inflation and sound fiscal policies. Now, the country is looking for foreign direct investment to enhance the level of their currency that is Yuan as a global reserve currency. The country is already come in contract with currency swapping with some of the countries and continuously experiencing the strength o f Yuan in the market at global level (Yang, 2010). Still the country is facing so much of complications as it is difficult to become a major reserve currency. Cultural analysis of China: As far as the Chinese people are concerned, it has been analysed that there is some homogeneity of culture and characteristics that has been found in the Chinese people. The first quality that has been identified in the people of China is patience. They are very much patient in nature and this may be because of the historical viewpoints of China. But, if they are patient, they are also indifferent at the same time (Kipnis, 2011). Being indifferent is the virtue of their culture and it has been told me the parents to the kids to be indifferent. It may be because of the lack of legal protection. Being indifferent is not the natural characteristic but it develops because of the type of culture. As far as traditional Chinese values are considered, it has been analysed that Chinese people have respect for family, love, integrity, hard work but at the same time they are not very honest and found to be full of corruptions (Cohen, 2010). It has been analysed from the overall study that Chine se are the people who are very much attached with their culture and are patient in nature with hard working skills. They have imaginary and innovative minds that support them to be technologically very sound as compared to some of the other countries in Asia. China is a very large country and the culture of the country varies with region to region. More than a billion populations in China have different ethnic groups. Some of the ethnic groups are Han Chinese, Mongols, Tibetans, Naxi, etc (Kow Nardi, 2010). Individual that live together in a community makes their own culture. The culture of the country includes the food, style, marriage, music, morals, beliefs, religion etc. The Chinese Communist Party is the party that rules China and is officially considered as atheist. In current times, there are five official religions in China that are followed the people living there. These five religions are Taosim, Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism and Buddhism. Other than this religion, many of the religion are considered as illegal in China (Walker, Hu Qian, 2012). China is gradually becoming tolerant to other religion as well because of migrants of the people and the practices of globalisation most of the people from other countries are settling down at China. Chinese is language that has been spoken by all the people or the local people living in China but this language has many variations and this variation divides the language in to seven dialects. Mandarin is the dialect that has been spoken by 71.5% of population. As far as the national official language of the country is considered, it has been analysed that Putonghua is the official language that is a type of mandarin dialect that is spoken in the capital Beijing. English is also spoken fluently by the people in China (Xian-zhong, 2013). Chinese food is not only famous in China but is very popular in the whole world. Chinese cuisine is liked by many people and every country has exclusive Chinese restaurants (Men Tsai, 2012). Chinese food is much known for its spiciness and schezwan is the sauce that is very famous and is used in almost all the Chinese dishes. Rice is one of the staple foods of the country and is an important part of the Chinese society. The largest festival that has been celebrated by the whole China is spring festival. It is the festival that is celebrated between mid-January to mid-February. This suggests that the people in China are very much related to their culture and religion. Business culture of China: There are different elements of business culture of Chinese people. Some of the elements and aspects of culture of business in China is discussed below: Relationship building: Relationship plays a very important role in business culture of China. It has been analysed that Guanxi is the term that has been used by Chinese people for relationship. The aim of building relationship among the business people is to develop Guanxi (Chong, Chan Ooi, 2012. It is the term that is used for business connection is made by mutual interest. As China is the centralised state so relying on relationship is the most important way to get the things done. In China, the legal things are not at place and thus maintaining Guanaxi is required for conducting business. Although, China is the country that own many private sector companies but the roles of date and the government in the companies cannot be neglected. In addition to it, the private firms at China need to include the state control in their function and the state interferes in the way the business is being conducted by the company (Warner, 2014) . So, if any of the international company wants to deal with the Chinese business, it is required to be aware about the political concerns related to business. Chinese people are very formal in nature and thus their business meetings are also very formal. The business meetings start with a formal introduction from the most senior person. Business cards are the most important part of the business meetings in China. They speak in indirect way and do not soak directly. Their meaning needs to be implied. They are WE oriented and are receiver sensitive. As discussed that relationship and bonding is the major element of the businesses. Business culture comparison: China and Malaysia: Cultural differences are the major aspect that needs to be considered when any of the company wants to conduct any business in another country. As far as China and Malaysia is considered, there are various differences in both the countries in terms of business culture. The difference in the culture between Malaysia and China influences the cost of doing business in each of the country. As far as Malaysia is concerned, it has been analysed that the cost of setting up the business is higher than China for international companies (Mahmud, Amat, Rahman Ishak, 2010). This is because the government of Malaysia provide many subsidies to local companies and not to the MNCs. On the other hand, China is the country where negotiation is the element if doing business. Extensive consultation is required by the companies. Malaysia is the country where the business are hierarchical based and the managers require respect from their employees but it is the country in which business takes the decision after considering all the members of the company and not alone by the management. On the other hand, China is the country that is also based on hierarchy and most of the business in China uses the directive approach which is not the case in Malaysia (Heide, 2010). Gift giving is not the custom in Malaysia but Chinese people believes that giving gifts is the sign of building relations and bond. Hofstede 5D cultural dimension analysis: Hofstede model helps in analysing the cultural dimensions of the country. As far as china is concerned, following is the 5D analysis of the country. Power distance: It is the dimension that suggests that all the individuals are not similar in nature and thus differences have been found in the culture and the attitude of the people. It is the element that basically deals with the power distribution in the country. In case of China, it has been analysed that rank of China is 80 PDI and thus the inequality between the powers of the people is very much acceptable. It has been analysed that the subordinates and the employees at the Chinese organisations experience great power distances. It is the element where the degree of interdependency amongst the members of the society has been measured. There are two dimension of this event. One is individualism that deals with the people who takes of themselves and their direct family members while collectivism is the culture where the people believe in group activities and support. It has been analysed that China is at the score of 20. This suggests that the interdependency of the people amongst each other is very high and the country follows the culture of collectivism (Mahmud, Amat, Rahman Ishak, 2010). They believe in WE and not I. The people in China are very much relationship oriented. High score on the dimension (masculine) suggest that the society believes in competitiveness and success thus observed to be very aggressive in nature. Low score in this dimension suggests that the society follows the culture of feminisms and believes in quality of life and care for others. China is the country that scores 66 in this content and thus is considered as Masculine in nature that means the society is more success driven. They are very much committed to their work and do not maintain the balance between work and life (Kow Nardi, 2010). As the score is 66 so it is not very far from the feminine characteristics and it has been analysed that relationship is somehow matters to the people in China but works always comes first. They are very hard working and can compromise with the personal life for the sake of professional work. This is the dimension that deals with the future uncertainty and the intensity of those uncertainties. It has been analysed that the country with low score in this context have the capability to accept the uncertainty situation and can avoid them by making adjustment. Chins score 30 in this dimension that clearly depicts hat it is the country with the society that is flexible in mature. The rule and relation formed in the country are flexible to enough to be altered at the time of requirements and according to the situations. Long term/ short term orientation: It is the dimension that deals with the extent to which the society believes in the pragmatic future. The society that believes in working for the long term goals have high score in this content just like china. China is the country that has scored 118 in this context and this suggests that the society of this country believes in working for long term purpose. Conclusion: The report concludes that China is the country with very interesting history. It has been identified from the report that Chinese people are very much attached with their culture. Chinese food is one of the greatest strength of the country as it is very popular in al over the world. As far as the business environment is considered, it has been analysed that China is the place with less business setting up cost as compared to Malaysia with greater profit opportunities and thus any of the company wants to enter into international market, it should choose China over Malaysia. References: Archer, L., Francis, B., Mau, A. (2010). The culture project: Diasporic negotiations of ethnicity, identity and culture among teachers, pupils and parents in Chinese language schools.Oxford Review of Education,36(4), 407-426. Cai, S., Jun, M., Yang, Z. (2010). Implementing supply chain information integration in China: The role of institutional forces and trust.Journal of Operations Management,28(3), 257-268. Chong, A. Y. L., Chan, F. T., Ooi, K. B. (2012). Predicting consumer decisions to adopt mobile commerce: Cross country empirical examination between China and Malaysia.Decision Support Systems,53(1), 34-43. Cohen, P. A. (2010).Discovering history in China: American historical writing on the recent Chinese past. Columbia University Press. Heide, W. V. D. (2010).Malaysian cinema, Asian film: Border crossings and national culture(p. 336). Amsterdam University Press. Kipnis, A. B. (2011).Governing educational desire: Culture, politics, and schooling in China. University of Chicago Press. Kow, Y. M., Nardi, B. (2010). Culture and creativity: World of Warcraft modding in China and the US. InOnline worlds: Convergence of the real and the virtual(pp. 21-41). Springer London. Law, W. W. (2012). Educational leadership and culture in China: Dichotomies between Chinese and Anglo-American leadership traditions?.International Journal of Educational Development,32(2), 273-282. Liu, C., Liu, W., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., Wang, P. (2013). Patient safety culture in China: a case study in an outpatient setting in Beijing.BMJ Qual Saf, bmjqs-2013. Mahmud, Z., Amat, S., Rahman, S., Ishak, N. M. (2010). Challenges for international students in Malaysia: Culture, climate and care.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,7, 289-293. Men, L. R., Tsai, W. H. S. (2012). How companies cultivate relationships with publics on social network sites: Evidence from China and the United States.Public Relations Review,38(5), 723-730. Ryan, C., Gu, H. (2010). Constructionism and culture in research: Understandings of the fourth Buddhist Festival, Wutaishan, China.Tourism management,31(2), 167-178. Walker, A., Hu, R., Qian, H. (2012). Principal leadership in China: An initial review.School Effectiveness and School Improvement,23(4), 369-399. Warner, M. (2014).Culture and management in Asia. Routledge. Xian-zhong, L. I. (2013). Inheritance of Chinese Excellent Traditional Culture and Promoting Contemporary College Students' Morality.Journal of Anhui Radio TV University,2, 018. Yang, Y. (2010). The construction of brand culture based on corporate culture.International Journal of Business and Management,5(4), 223.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Indonesian Tourism Industry Tourism Essay Example

The Indonesian Tourism Industry Tourism Essay The capital metropolis of Indonesia, Jakarta with a entire populations of 9.6 million ( BPS, 2012 ) with five countries viz. West, East, North, South and Central, has positive economic growing since period 2000 to 2011, which largely was sustained by the three chief sectors such as ( 1 ) fiscal, existent estate and concern services sector, ( 2 ) trade hotel and eating house sector and ( 3 ) fabrication sector. ( BPS, 2012 ) The increasing of economic growing gives impacts to the touristry industry in Indonesia. In January 2011, the Culture and Tourism Minister of Republic Indonesia announced the replacing of Visit Indonesia Year stigmatization with Fantastic Dutch east indies as portion of touristry run that expected to pull 7.7 million foreign tourers and bring forth $ 8.3 billion of gross. Whereas 50 % of this gross will be generated from meetings, convention and exhibitions that will take topographic point in assorted topographic point in Indonesia. ( The Jakarta Post, 31st December 2010 ) . Jakarta, where the cardinal authorities, trade, services and industry are located at, makes Jakarta a finish for concern travelers or as a authorities cardinal meeting. In add-on, with the completing installations at JIExpo Kemayoran in North Jakarta, Jakarta Convention Center in Central Jakarta, Balai Kartini in South Jakarta, Semanggi Expo in South Jakarta, Jakarta will go one of the touristry finish for MICE ( Meeting, Incentive, Convention, and Exhibition ) concern. ( Sarya, 2011, p.16 ) We will write a custom essay sample on The Indonesian Tourism Industry Tourism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Indonesian Tourism Industry Tourism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Indonesian Tourism Industry Tourism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Table 1. : The statistic of figure of international tourer reaching through gate Airport Year 2008 2009 2010 2011 Soekarno Hatta, 1,464,717 1,390,440 1,823,636 1,933,022 Ngurah Rai, 2,081,786 2,384,819 2,546,023 2,788,706 Polonia, 130,211 148,193 162,410 192,650 Sam Ratulangi 21,795 29,715 20,220 20,074 Batam 1,061,390 951,384 1,007,446 1,161,581 Juanda, Surabaya 156,726 158,076 168,888 185,815 Adi Sumarmo 19,022 16,489 22,350 23,830 Minangkabau, 40,911 51,002 27,482 30,585 Others 1,257,939 1,193,612 1,224,489 1,311,468 Sum 6,234,497 6,323,730 7,002,944 7,647,731 Beginning: Biro Pusat Statistik, 2012 Table 1.1 shows that the international tourers who arrived through Jakarta s International Airport viz. Soekarno Hatta, have increased twelvemonth to twelvemonth which in 2011, it reached about 1.9 million. The entire international tourers who came to Indonesia in 2011 have about reached the mark of the Culture and Tourism Minister to pull 7.7 million foreign tourers. Hotel Industry For some large states like Jakarta, which has many concern activities, hotel becomes one of the most productive income-producing belongingss ( Internal information Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 ) . There are four benefits from hotel industry for a state ( Medlik A ; Ingram, 2000, p.4 ) , which are, In some countries, hotel as an attractive force of visitant who bring passing power and who tend to pass more money than they do when they are at place. This visitant disbursement power frequently gives large part to the economic system gross of a state. In Jakarta, hotel, trade and eating house sector is one of top three sectors which give a biggest part in GDP for largely old ages. From period 2009-2011, hotel, trade and eating house sector has contributed 20 % for DKI Jakarta s GDP ( Gross Domestic Product ) . ( BPS, 2009 2011 ) In countries which having foreign visitants, hotels play large functions as alien currency earners which can give large part to their state s balance of payments. For states which have little possibilities of export may take hotels as their alien currency earners. Hotels can supply many occupation chances that this function is of import for countries which have little figure of beginnings of employment, where they contribute to regional development. Hotel can move as a medium to promo the merchandises of other industries. Largely hotel are supplied with nutrient, drink and other consumables which purchased from local husbandmans, fishermen and other providers. Using local merchandises in their services makes this hotel non merely can lend straight to their economic system gross to state as a alien currency earners but besides indirectly as an mercantile establishment to advance other local industries. Hotels may go societal activity Centres for local people and frequently their eating houses and other installations can pull local usage. The positive macroeconomic growing encourages the positive growing of hotel supply in Jakarta, as a respond from hotel groups for the positive growing of room demand. Some hotel groups expand their hotel concatenation by increasing their figure of hotel, such as Tauzia ( local concatenation ) which its hotel direction will develop 23 hotels until 2012, consist of 15 units Harris Hotel and 8 units of Pop Harris. Next, there is the Accor group ( international concatenation based on France and the largest operator of hotels in Asia Pacific ) program to spread out their web across Indonesia from 40 hotels in 2011 to 100 hotels by 2015. PT Surya Semesta Internusa Tbk ( SSIA ) , who own and manages the 5-star Gran Melia Hotel Jakarta and Melia Hotel Bali, plans to spread out its gross in the cordial reception market by developing a budget hotel web in 2012. The increasing figure of hotel for a budget hotel to a five stars hotel for period 2000 2011 are shown on the Figure 1.2, ( from the period 2012 2015 are projection figure ) , Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 Figure1. : The hotel supply in Jakarta by figure of hotel from period 2000-2015 Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 Figure1. : The hotel supply in Jakarta by figure of room from period 2000-2015 Based on the Figure 1.2, the supply of hotel since 2000-2011 are dominated by 5-star hotel and 4-star hotel, whereas until 2011 there were already 37 five-star hotel and 35 four-star hotel in Jakarta. These hotel groups which play in Jakarta hotel market consist of international and local trade names. Some of international trade names in Indonesia which the author would wish to advert are Holiday Inn, Sheraton, Four Seasons, Kempinksi, InterContinental, Hilton International, Ritz-Carlton and Mandarin Oriental. While the local trade names besides sharply work to construct their ain concatenation, from Santika, Mulia and Sultan to the Sahid Group and many others. The Emerging of Budget Hotel in Jakarta The construct of Budget Hotel in Jakarta began to emerge in 2006, initiated by the Accor Group, France with the Hotel Formule1, which plans to construct four other subdivision of this hotel in Bali, Semarang, Yogyakarta and Jakarta. Then followed by Santika Group with their Amaris Hotel that until 2012 holding 22 Amaris hotel and planning to spread out the concatenation by adding another 13 Amaris Hotel. Basically the key participants in budget hotel market are hotel groups who already have established their star hotel ironss, and because they can see the possible market and demand of budget hotel, they add one line in their concatenation for budget hotel. Some of the hotel groups are shown in Table 1. : Hotel groups and their trade name on star and budget hotel. Table 1. : Hotel groups and their trade name on star and budget hotel Hotel Group Star Hotel Brand Budget Hotel Brand Aston International Aston Hotel ( 3 Star ) Fave Hotel Accor Group Grand Mercure ( 4 star ) Novotel ( 4 star ) Pullman Hotel ( 5 star ) Ibis Budget Hotel ( antecedently Formule 1 ) Grahawita Santika Santika Premiere ( 4 Star ) Santika Hotel ( 3 Star ) Amaris Hotel Tauzia Hotel Management Harris Hotel ( 4 Star ) Pop Hotel PT Intiland Development Grand Whiz ( 3 Star ) Whiz Hotel Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International, 2012 Budget hotels are known for its low menu hotel ( Barrows A ; Powers, 2009, pp.273 ) , where invitees can see remaining at good quality hotel, with a low monetary value. The invitees pay merely for what they use. This will ensue in non merely cost efficiency for the costumier but besides for the investor. Based on Colliers International Indonesia information 2012, in twelvemonth 2011 there are merely 6 budget hotels in Jakarta, which are, Formule 1, Menteng by Accor Amaris Hotel, Panglima Polim by Santika Formule 1, Cikini by Accor Amaris Mangga Dua Square by Santika Amaris Soekarno Hatta, Cengkareng by Santika Amaris Senen by Santika In the Figure 1.3 shows the entire figure of budget hotel in Jakarta since emerged in 2006 to 2012. Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 Figure1. : The figure of budget hotel in Jakarta from period 2006-2012 The Segment of Budget Hotel The chief section of budget hotel in Jakarta is concern traveler. The high demand of concern activities in Jakarta, which require low monetary value adjustment with limited service, has encouraged budget hotel as a chief penchant for company in taking their concern adjustment. In add-on, there is a displacement work system among corporation when they will make enlargement into a new country. In the epoch of the 1990s, to supervise or guarantee the possible for concern in country which freshly initiated, the company normally sends a direct top direction ( Hari et al. , June 2011, p.44 ) . Since 2000 s, with the bettering economic system and quality of human resources, the corporation began to depute the undertaking at in-between direction degree ( Hari et al. , June 2011, p.44 ) . In add-on, by deputing undertakings to the degree of direction, the costs will be cheaper than directing the top direction. Those alterations of form, so impact the travel concern in Indonesia, from the outgrowth of low cost bearer ( LCC ) to the mushrooming budget hotel ( limited service hotels ) which merely provide the basic demands of the invitees: the comfy suites for remainder. Basically the potency of concern traveller market in Jakarta is rather big, because of few grounds, which are: The betterment in all sectors and positive economic growing has large impact in the increasing of concern activity in Jakarta. In their concern activity, the concerns frequently do concern trip to out of town, even abroad. And as a cardinal authorities, trade, services and industry, Jakarta becomes one of the most finishs for concern travelers in Indonesia. Based on informations from Asia Pacific Business Traveller Research 2011 by Accor Group, the cost which spent for hotel adjustment for Indonesian concern traveler is $ 92/night ( 2011, p.11 ) , while the norm long stay is 2.08 twenty-four hours. ( BPS, 2011 ) As the entire concern traveler in Indonesia in 2011 is about 90 % of the entire domestic tourer in Indonesia ( Siahaan, 2012 ) , hence concern travelers will be around 6.84 million in a twelvemonth. Therefore from this sum of concern travelers, there is about $ 1.3trillion of the entire cost of the trip that flows into the hotel industry in 2011. Global fiscal crisis in 2008 had besides triggered the corporation to cut their concern travel budget. There are some schemes that they have done during 3 old ages after the crisis ( 2009-2011 ) . Based on Ascend Corporate Travel Survey 2012 , from 340 respondent of concern travelers who based 43 % Europe, 30 % North America and 17 % Asia Pacific, there is an increasing figure of company which planning to alter their pick of hotels to salvage money in 2011. Whereas this status was encouraged budget hotel as a penchant adjustment for company for concern trip The Industry of Budget Hotel in Jakarta What becomes interesting from budget hotel market in Jakarta is how the supply and demand of budget hotel is significantly increasing in the short period of clip. Many hotel groups or air hose groups expand their concern to put in budget hotel, by seeing the possible demand of this hotel. For case, AirAsia Group, an air hose company based on Malaysia, who became a innovator of supplying a budget air hose ( Low Cost Carrier, LLC ) , has besides interested to make budget hotel with trade name Tune Hotel. After first established in Malaysia in 2007, Tune Hotel has spread in 6 states, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, England, Thailand, Filipina and Australia. In 2009, they launched two Tune Hotel in Bali which is in Kuta and Seminyak and in 2013, they are be aftering to spread out 13 Tune Hotels in Indonesia which will be in Jakarta, Bekasi, Surabaya, Pekanbaru, Makassar, Sola, Palembang, Tangerang and Bali ( Kompas, 5th September 2012, p.19 ) In the Figure1. : The growing in footings of figure of suites from period 2000-2012 below shows that budget hotel s growing compared with 3, 4 and 5 star hotels in footings of figure of suites is lifting important since emerged in 2006. Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 Figure1. : The growing in footings of figure of suites from period 2000-2012 The important supply of budget hotel is a respond for important demand from the market. It can be seen from the tenancy rate of budget hotel which is rather good better than 3 5 star hotels. The Figure1. : The tenancy rate from 5-star hotel to budget hotel shows that merely two old ages after budget hotel has emerged to the market, its tenancy rate is extremely better than 3 5 star hotels, even 5-star hotel has the lowest tenancy rate from 2000-2011. Beginning: Adopted from informations internal Colliers International Indonesia, 2012 Figure1. : The tenancy rate from 5-star hotel to budget hotel The higher demand of budget hotel than 3, 4, 5 star hotels gives an thought that budget hotel likely has satisfied their client and could make their trueness clients who wants to make repetition purchases of their services. However, before making high client satisfaction degree and holding trueness clients, there are values that budget hotel should give to their client. How client value creative activity that budget hotel has done to their client and how this value creative activity impacts their client satisfaction and trueness that finally will increase their demand degree and how this client value creative activity impacts to the hotel profitableness that impact the supply degree will be a intent for this research. Problem Designation Due to the demand of budget hotel is higher than 3, 4, 5 star hotels, therefore there is a mark that likely budget hotel has satisfied their client that finally could make client trueness who wants to make repetition purchases of their services hotel. However, in order to fulfill their client and make client trueness, they should give values to their client. Therefore, the issue in this thesis is to analyze The Impact of Customer Value Creation on Budget Hotel towards Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty and Hotel Profitability . There are four countries of research job, What value creative activity that budget hotel has done towards its clients? What is the client satisfaction degree of budget hotel as an impact of client value creative activity? What are the ruling values in act uponing client satisfaction which will take to make client trueness? How is the profitableness degree of budget hotel compared to 4 and 5 star hotel as an impact from client satisfaction and client trueness? Research Objective The chief intents of this research paper are: To place and explicate the client s value of budget hotel To place and explicate of client satisfaction of budget hotel as impacts of the client value creative activity To place and explicate the ruling value in act uponing client satisfaction degree of budget hotel, which will take to make client trueness To place and explicate the correlativity between client satisfaction and client trueness of budget hotel To analyse the profitableness degree of budget hotel compared with 4 and 5 star hotel as an impact from client satisfaction degree and client trueness Significant Research The survey is important because it provides information which will be helpful for the readers: The survey is important in understanding the client behaviour and needs better. The survey will turn to the issue of client value creative activity to better the client satisfaction to make client trueness. The survey may be utile for many interested parties, particularly: Budget hotel groups. They may utilize this research to back up sweetening of client satisfaction and relationship Students and internal parties of Swiss German University. This research can be used as a mention for lectors and other pupils to carry on farther research. The research worker. The consequence of this research can be used to enrich my cognition. Academicians. The consequence of this research can be used to make farther research in the same industry. Scope and Limitation of Thesis In order that the survey on this topic more focal point, and to acquire the benefit from the survey, therefore the survey limited to: The value creative activity by budget hotel in Jakarta towards its client The impact of client value creative activity on client satisfaction and trueness The impact of client satisfaction and trueness on profitableness degree of budget hotel compared with hotel industry.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

SAT Critical Reading -PrepScholar 2016 Students Encyclopedia

SAT Critical Reading -PrepScholar 2016 Students' Encyclopedia SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The Critical Reading section of the SAT tests students' literacy skills, in particulartheir reading comprehension and understanding of vocabulary. It is meant to measure students' ability to understand written English on the level neededfor success in college courses. Top scorers on thissection tend to use methods of speed reading and skimming for importantdetails to their advantage, as Critical Readingquestions simultaneously requireclose reading and efficiency. Studies have also shown that maintaining a mindset of interest in the passages aidsa reader's retention of facts and details. Note: this article is a series in the PrepScholar2016 Students' Encyclopedia, a free students' and parents' SAT / ACT guide that provides encyclopedic knowledge. Read all the articles here! While studentsmay be accustomed to debatingvarious points of view within their English classrooms, they will not find room for subjective opinion on the SAT Critical Reading. Instead, each question has only one, unambiguously correct answer, even questions that ask for inference or interpretation. Preparation with SAT materialscan help students applytheir skills of reading comprehension to SATCritical Reading questions that maydiffer from traditional classroom approaches. Critical Reading sections are interspersed throughout the test with Mathematics and Writing sections. There aretwo 25 minute sections and one 20 minute section for a total of 70 minutes. The Critical Reading section asks a total of 67 questions, all of which are multiple choice. If students encounter three25 minute Critical Reading sections on the SAT, then one of them is experimental and will not be scored. On recently administered tests, students have reported encountering unexpectedCritical Reading questions that involved a "base question," followed by several "evidence questions" that referred back to it. For instance, an evidence question might take the form of, "Which of the following provides the best evidence for the previous question?" Since this format is not characteristic of questions onthe Critical Reading section, it is likely that these questions appeared on the experimental, or variable, section in order to test out new material for the redesigned SAT starting in Marchof 2016. Apart from these unconfirmed clues, students have no way of knowing exactly which SAT section is experimental and benefit from treating allsections as important fortheir overall score. There are two main types of questions within Critical Reading: passage-based questions and sentence completions. Passage-based questions test students' reading comprehensionand analysis, while sentence completionsask students to choose one or two vocabulary words that best fit the meaning of a given sentence.Across all Critical Readingsections, there are 19 sentence completions and 48 passage-based questions. Passage-based questions ask about a short passage of 100 to 200 words, a long passage of 400 to 800 words, or paired passages of 250 to 600 words. Paired passages usually address the same topic or theme, and students are asked to compare and contrast the excerpts or the perspectives of the authors. Passages alwaysconsist of prose and may be taken from longer works in the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, literary fiction, or personal narrative. At the beginning of each passage is a blurb stating its source and author, whichmay help deepen students' comprehension by groundingthe passage in its historical context. Many SAT experts agree that passage-based questions fall into five general types. SAT teachers and tutors instruct students to use these soft categorizations in order to understand eachquestion's intent and to focus their attention on the relevant information within the passage(s). These question types may be identified asbig picture, little picture, inference, vocabulary in context, and author's perspective. The first Critical Reading question type asks for the "big picture," or main purpose, of a passage. Big picture questions tend toask fora passage's theme or its overall purpose, including whether it ismeant to inform, review, contradict, persuade, parody, or hypothesize. For instance, this official sample SAT question falls into the big picture category. Sample SAT Question The second question type asks for "little picture," or refers the reader to a specific detail within a passage and cites its location, as lines are numbered by multiples of five. This type of Critical Readingquestion may ask how a line functions within a paragraph, or what a paragraph accomplishes within theentire passage. While it is taken out of context, thisSAT sample question is an example of a little picture passage-based question. Sample SAT Question The third passage-based question type asks for an inference based on a line, paragraph, or passage in its entirety. These questions may differ from the inference skills students apply within their English classrooms, as they are not subjective and will only have one unambiguously correct answer choice. This sample question, while taken out of context, falls into this category of inference Critical Reading questions. Sample SAT Question Fourth, some questions ask about vocabulary in context. Unlike sentence completions, these questions generally refer to easy or medium-range vocabulary words that arebeing used in an unusual way within the context of the passage. Students must use context clues to glean the meaning or function of the word as it is being used. Often, the answer choices will contain higher level vocabulary words than the one under question. Sample SAT Question Finally, the fifth categorization refers to the author's technique, tone, or style. To prepare themselves for these kinds of questions, students are likely to benefit from studyingcommon tone classifications like somber, ambivalent, vindictive, sarcastic, earnest, and pragmatic. Sample SAT Question While Critical Reading questions may not all fall neatly within these domains, as they are based on analysis rather than on official College Board policy, most SAT tutors and teachers agree that the majority can bethus described. Taken together, passage-based questions test students' reading skills, including their ability to make inferences, to understand words and phrases in context, to apply literary terms like tone, theme, and symbol, and to evaluate an author's logic, argument, techniques, and purpose. While these question types may appear in any order, they are arranged chronologically to coincide withthe relevant passage(s). A question about the first paragraph in a passage, for instance, will appear near the beginning of agroup of questions, while a question about the passage's conclusion will be asked near the end of thatgroup. The remaining 19 questions in the Critical Reading section are sentence completions that test vocabulary. Allof these questions are independent from one another. They have one or two blanks and ask students to choose the word(s) that "best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole." These questions test knowledge of the meaning of high level words. Commonly tested SAT vocabulary words include acrimonious, anachronistic, draconian, ephemeral, laconic, and ostracize. Students may prepare for these questions with the use of SAT vocabulary lists and flash cards. Along with an understanding of vocabulary, these sentences also test an awarenessof how a sentence fits together logically.Students benefit from seeing therelationships among words in a sentence. For instance, a conjunctiveadverb like "however" may indicatethat part of the sentence contrasts with another part, like in the following SAT sample question. Sample SAT Question Answer: B Each Critical Reading section starts out with 5 to 8 sentence completions, with the remainder of the questions being passage-based. Students who perform best on the Critical Reading section of the SAT have a strong working knowledge of SAT vocabulary words, as well as an ability to comprehend and analyze prose with efficiency. Students also benefit from taking a strategic approach to time management, some choosing to read the pertinent passage-based questions before reading the passage, along with using skimming and speed-reading techniques. Redesign Alert The new SAT, starting in Marchof 2016, eliminates sentence completion questions. Vocabulary questions will focus on medium-level, multiple-meaning words within the context of longer passages. Read more from the SAT Encyclopedia! Further Reading The Best Way to Read the Passage in SAT Reading The Best SAT Vocabulary Lists on the Web How to Get an 800 on SAT Reading

Friday, November 22, 2019

Women, Voice Pitch Authority, and Gender Bias

Women, Voice Pitch Authority, and Gender Bias Do we respond differently to the sound of a voice based on its gender? Do mens voices have more authority and are womens voices more friendly? These questions skim the surface of an overlooked aspect of gender discrimination bias that arises from how we judge a female voice, especially pitch. Typically, gender bias against women is rooted in optics. We look at hair color, body shape, size, weight, height, physical attractiveness and make assumptions. Clothing, skirt length, and style of attire provide visual cues that fuel stereotypes and feed into gender expectations. Take away sight and we still jump to conclusions, but now the pitch of a womans voice becomes the yardstick by which we measure her worth. Picture the stereotypical dumb blonde. How does she sound? Either we imagine her voice as high and squeaky, or soft and breathy like Marilyn Monroe. Its sexy, but it doesnt convey authority or increase trust. Going Low To gain authority, women have long believed that its better to pitch their voices lower. And experts have discovered that most women are following that dictum. Over the past 50 years, womens voices have dropped significantly. Although womens voices normally register a full octave higher than mens voices, today theyre just 2/3rds of an octave higher. The most prominent example of this vocal divide can be seen in the media where an enormous distinction exists between the types of products sold by female voices and those pitched by male voices. At first glance, it might appear that women and men enjoy parity based on the number of voiceovers on TV commercials. Womens voices are commonplace in commercials that sell everyday household items such as dishwashing detergent, toilet bowl cleaners, diapers, paper towels. But commercials selling big-ticket items such as cars and trucks are largely the domain of male voices. Thats because of the sexual politics surrounding how we perceive male and female voices. Writing for the UK website the New Humanist, Sally Feldman observes: [Theres] a basic difference between the way men and women tend to speak. Whereas men often breathe from their abdomen, women are more likely to constrict their voices to an upper range which allows less variety and less control. In a recent collection of essays, Well-Tuned Women, Kristin Linklater writes: â€Å"When a high voice connects with a strong impulse based, for instance, in anger or fear, it becomes shrill, strident, screechy, piercing, nasal, penetrating, sharp, squeaky or brassy and generally unpleasant to the point of causing major distress in the hearers.† Men, on the other hand, with their deeper voices and richer tones, find it easier to convey authority and control. It’s partly physiological. Men’s voices are lower than women’s because they have a larger larynx, developed in the Adam’s apple at puberty, and longer, thicker vocal folds.... Anne Karpf [author of The Human Voice] argues that men have come to assert power through their deep voices and resonant tones to such an extent that â€Å"pitch has become a weapon in the gender wars. Men in Control Look beyond TV commercials and youll see how effectively men have wielded the power of pitch in the gender wars. Ever notice there are no female announcers on game shows? asks veteran voice actor Lora Cain. None serve as announcers on TV talk shows, and very few do network promos or movie trailers two of the most prestigious and highly-coveted jobs in the voiceover industry. According to Cain, statistics bear this out. Men do 80% of the voice work while women accounting for only 20%. Why does gender discrimination exist in a field where its not how you look but how you sound? Cain feels its because those positions of clout that determine whether a voice will be male or female namely, writers and directors are held primarily by men. The key is more women writers and women directors, she observed in a recent phone interview. If there were more women writers, thered be more of a tendency to say, Lets consider a woman for this. Opening Doors for Women Voiceover professional Lora Cain is one of just a handful of women competing at the upper levels of this male-dominated field, and shes acutely aware of how the deck is stacked against female announcers and women voice actors. Theres this belief that women dont sound good in certain situations or that women dont like to listen to women. Wheres the logic in that? she argues. Women talk to each other, and women make 80% of the buying decisions in this country. But when a woman wants advice on what to buy, shes not as likely to ask her male partner as she is a female friend...or even another woman standing in line at the bathroom. Thats just what women do. So, of course, we listen to other women. We seek out each others opinions. We are  our greatest resource. Im hoping that we can change that belief little by little. Cain credits changing opinions in the industry as opening doors for women. Whats popular now is the real person sound. Its created new opportunities and thats really wonderful. But women are still shut out of certain jobs where theres an expectation that you need to have a certain weight behind your voice. Some say that women dont have that, but thats not true. She cites Randy Thomas  as a woman with vocal weight. Described as the most recognized female voice in America,  Thomas is best known as the voice of the TV show  Entertainment Tonight  and the Hooked on Phonics commercials. Thomas shattered the voiceover glass ceiling in 1993 when she became the first female announcer of the Academy Awards. Since then, shes done the Oscars at least seven times as well as the Miss America Pageant and the Democratic National Convention. Shes the first announcer male or female to hit the trifecta of announcing the Big Three Awards the Oscars, the Tonys and the Primetime Emmys in a single year. Confidence Thomas has broken out of the pack of female voice talent due to that authoritative voice, as Cain describes it. You hear it and you believe her. This authority and forcefulness is ultimately the biggest hurdle facing women in the voiceover industry and in business as well. Listeners, like clients and co-workers, are more willing to place their trust in the voice that sounds confident and assured. The Count Is In A March 2010 AdweekMedia/Harris Poll  bears out these findings. Researchers asked participants to listen to male and female voiceovers in commercials and judge them based on various criteria. When asked who sounded more forceful, 48% chose the male voiceover while only 2% chose the female. When asked who sounded more soothing, respondents overwhelmingly chose the female voiceover 48% vs. only 8% for the male. Both genders were regarded as equally persuasive with 18% choosing the male voiceover vs. 19% choosing the female. Yet when it comes to major purchases, authority seems to trump soothing or persuasive. When asked which voiceover would be more likely to sell them on buying a car or a computer, respondents chose the male voice 3-4 times more often than the female; only 7% chose the female voice in either situation. In comparison, 28% of respondents felt the male voiceover was more likely to sell them a car, and 23% felt they were more likely to buy a computer based on the male voice. The problem is that we hear gender first and form assumptions about the speaker even before we have a chance to assess timbre, pitch, speed, clarity, and other vocal qualities that might establish authority or trust. Unfortunately, hearing gender isnt all that different from seeing gender when we discriminate based on sex alone and assign characteristics to physical traits often arbitrarily, stereotypically, and unfairly. Crossing Barriers Like Thomas, Cain has come up against the structural bias inherent in an industry where voices are judged by how well they sell. Shes been taking a crack at another glass ceiling announcing TV game shows as the only woman among half a dozen candidates vying to announce the popular syndicated show  Wheel of Fortune.  When the shows longtime male announcer passed away in November 2010, Caine pushed for the producer to consider a woman. Although there are no female announcers on any games shows currently in production, Cain is optimistic, noting, We go through these cycles in the 80s and 90s women could be heard as announcers on game shows although they were mostly cable channels. When she pointed out to  Wheel of Fortune  executive producer Harry Friedman that there were no other women announcers on TV game shows today, he was willing to give her a shot. Although the person behind the voice usually remains invisible, Cains putting her thoughts forward along with her voice to make audiences aware that women are capable of doing the same quality work as men, just as they do in every other career field. Im calling attention to this, Cain explains, because we need to recognize when women cross these barriers. At the same time, however, it would be nice to have viewers listen to someone like Randy Thomas and think, Oh, she sounds great instead of focusing solely on the fact that, Oh, thats a woman. Sources Camber, Rebecca.  Why women who want to get ahead get a husky voice., Mark. How People React to Male vs. Female Voiceovers. 8 March 2010.Feldman, Sally.  Speak up., Paula. Choice Voice. EMMY Magazine at

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

A Comparative Analysis of the Movie 300 and Herodotuss The Persian Essay

A Comparative Analysis of the Movie 300 and Herodotuss The Persian Wars - Essay Example However, the movie committed major deviations from Herodotus’s historical accounts of the Persian Wars. This paper attempts to discuss the differences between the film 300 and Herodotus’s account of the last stand at Thermopylae in terms of military tactics, naval engagements, and religion. In the movie, the King of Sparta, Leonidas, and his best soldiers confront Xerxes’s enormous army at the northern Greece’s narrow pass and courageously restrain the Persians. And the age-old motivating importance of sacrifice has been preserved. Hence, for people who think that the merit of a film is established firmly by its episodes, and that the value of its rhythm, visuals, acting, screenplay, and historical accuracy are merely icing in the cake, the 300 will be worth a watch. However, for people who think that rhythm, visuals, acting, screenplay, and historical accuracy represent the true success of film, that a setting is merely the objective, and that the objecti ve should never be confused with the action, the 300 is a quite worthless film. Military Tactics In the film 300 Leonidas is depicted as planning to carry his 300 elite soldiers to Thermopylae to crush the Persian army and stand up for freedom. Leaving behind the unsophisticated principle of justice, rationality, and freedom—the Spartans, similar to other Greeks, had a history of trying to subjugate if not really colonize other populations when it served their goals—it is nonsensical to propose that an exceptional Spartan commander like Leonidas would think that his elite army of 300 could spoil the ambitious goal of tens of thousands of Persian soldiers. The enthusiasm of Leonidas is not convincing or believable. The real last stand of the 300 as a hold-back strategy is historical and plausible. Some of the depictions of the military strategy are historically inaccurate. For instance, the filmmakers chose to reduce the Spartan body armors to their symbolic and basic a spects: weapons, shields, cloak, and headdress. The outcome is superhuman images, hoplites stripped of body armors. Any Greek fighter would refuse to go to war without some kind of upper body shield. There are other historical inaccuracies. Ephialtes, the Greek who double-crossed the Greek army, is shown as a badly misshapen Spartan recluse whose betrayal stems from the refusal of Leonidas to permit him to take part in the battle. Gorgo, the wife of Leonidas, who was trivially mentioned in the historical accounts, is granted with a very important role. The domestic political schemes in Sparta are entirely fictional. The route at Thermopylae is depicted as an extremely constricted crevice between upright rock faces. The Greek forces are depicted advancing south of Sparta but Thermopylae is located at the northern part of Sparta. Illusory creatures appear every now and then, like the giant elephants and rhinoceros, at the battle. These are imaginary additions. The documentary The Last Stand of the 300 accurately describes the military strategies at Thermopylae. Most of the descriptions are in line with Herodotus’s accounts. The Greek army positioned themselves in a phalanx, a fortification of encrusted spearpoints and

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The concept of urban flux Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The concept of urban flux - Essay Example Flux came into existence in 1950s with the neo-dada movement that used sound, sight, spectacles and event to explore artistic experience available in those days. This marked the beginning of change in art and urban environment, with more designers engaging into art as a score for performance. In addition, new technological innovations and the unstable urban environment have led to development of new trends flux display. For example, it is now possible to establish pixilated displays on the entire facade of buildings in urban areas. Transit vehicles as well can be used as mobile billboard as they move around the city (Hack, 2011). There are a number of ways in which urban flux has contributed into the current urban experience. The first one is that fluxes act as tourist’s attraction. For instances, by 1970s, Times Square was one of the places avoided by New Yorkers and tourist since it had become the hideout for criminal and sex workers (Hack, 2011). Despite the many attempts t o clear the unfortunate reputation the situation did not change, not until, designers came up with a plan they referred to as forty-second street now. The plan projected that the ground floor of all the buildings along Times Square streets to be covered with signage. In addition, new zoning rules were created which made it a requirement for every building plan to include signage and all tall building to have a 50 sq ft or more of super signage. Currently, New York Times Square is the most attractive and frequently visited areas in New York. The second one is that flux promotes communication and dissemination of information to a large number of people. This is possible because most of the urban flux displays are along the pedestrian pathways. For example, the Berlin wall paintings and Democracy wall in Beijing. The third advantage of urban flux is that it helps to create an attachment between the residents of a place and its environment. For instance, public art can symbolize a lost history of a place or engaging the public in its creation (Hack, 2011). Lastly, flux can bring back to life neglected and transitional parts of a city. A program on mural Arts in Philadelphia has significantly assisted in transforming parts of the city that were once abandoned. Urban flux, however, is associated with a number of ethical and legal issues. The first one is that, in most cases, temporary signage tends to persist even after building construction is completed. The second issue is an argument that advertisement fluxes on street benches and stands make the city untidy. The third one suggests that urban flux allow display of adverts that promotes unacceptable social practices such as beer drinking. The last one is that urban flux, especially the mural program does not clearly outline the rights entailed to an artist’s work ownership and maintenance terms. The fifth one is that some murals may be offensive in a way. Moreover, there are difficulties encountered in regu lating flux. For instance, the controversies on whether a fully pixilated facade is a sign or an element, a commercial billboard or art. The other difficult issue is determining the duration temporary elements should remain on the construction sites. In addition, it is also not clear if there are

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Restaurant Review Essay Example for Free

Restaurant Review Essay Toronto, with a population of 5.5 million people, is the largest, modern and culturally diverse city in Canada. As it is one of the most multicultural cities on earth, no other city has this unique international atmosphere than the Greater Toronto Area. There are presently over 140 languages and dialects spoken in Toronto and because of these reasons, many immigrants choose to live in this beautiful city. It is certain that the increase in immigrants will definitely bring a positive impact to the local food industry. There are many different kinds of restaurants that are located in the city of Toronto; such as family style, country style, Western, Chinese, Korean, and etc. One of the most astonishing restaurants I have visited is called Kinton Ramen. Kinton Ramen is located in the city of Toronto, at 51 Baldwin Street. Kinton Ramen is an authentic Japanese noodle bar restaurant that specializes in traditional Japanese alcoholic drinks and Ramen. The traditional flavour of the restaurant can be seen beyond the vast array of menu items into its atmosphere and decors. This 46 seats restaurant was opened in May 2012 and has become a landmark on Baldwin Street for those customers who are looking for traditional Japanese Ramen. Kinton Ramen was established by the owners of the â€Å"Guu† Japanese bar restaurant chain and is being operated independently by the Kinton Ramen group. Read more: Restaurant Review Essay Kinton Ramen utilizes online mediums and word of mouth as their marketing strategies. Through using online mediums such as online blog and Facebook, it has enabled the restaurant to connect and interact with new customers from the internet, and has also allowed the restaurant to build relationships with existing customers. For example: After you have finished a bowl of Ramen, the sever may invite you to take a photo that would be posted on Facebook; in which you would be identified as a Kinton Bowler (optional). Additional reasons that contribute to Kinton Ramen’s success would be word of mouth from customers. I came to know about this unique Japanese noodle bar located on Baldwin Street from my friends. After visiting to Kinton Ramen, I found there are three elements that lead Kinton Ramen’s success are consistency, efficiency, and excellent customer service. I have visited the restaurant for more than five times, and the food items have been consistent and delicious. As mentioned before, Kinton Ramen is a 46 seats restaurant, consequently seats are very limited. Hence, the Kinton Ramen group takes the time control very seriously. Orders are usually prepared within 5 to 10 minutes after being placed by customer. In addition to the restaurant’s efficient service, Kinton Ramen offers excellent hospitality services. Kinton Ramen staff members will enthusiastically greet all customers and because of their team spirit and all warm-hearted service attitudes, they have created an enjoyable surrounding for their customers. As a final point, Kinton Ramen is an excellent Japanese noodle bar restaurant. They are not only selling delicious food and beverage items, but also offer enthusiastic customer service. These reasons undeniably are making me to go their restaurant more often.